Luis Toral González was a Mexican plastic artist from the state of Puebla, who in the mid-20th century had a fruitful production of pictorial works that faithfully represent the original image of the Virgin of Guadalupe, safeguarded in the National Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico City, which represents the most important Catholic devotion in this country. His images are found in churches of Mexican Republic and other countries like Spain and Israel. However, he remains an unknown artist, scarcely mentioned in literature and with no record of his work. This project aims to explore the artistic legacy of Toral, mainly on a national scale, focuses on the exploration of his work in Mexico City and the states of Puebla, Mexico and Campeche. The method consisted in the search and registration of the paintings in the mentioned entities, traveling to different towns and cities between 2011 and 2016, based on the information provided by members of Campeche clergy and the artist’s family, especially Alberto Toral Solís, his cousin and closest collaborator during his career. The principles of the Guadelupan phenomenon is also analysed in this paper to understand the cult as a product of the religious syncretism between the indigenous beliefs and the Catholicism imposed by the Spaniards who arrived in the American lands in the 16th century. The main conclusion is that the work of Luis Toral must be revalued in the historical-artistic field in the period of the Mexican Post-Revolution and after confrontations between the Catholic Church and the Mexican Government that legalized a secular state. In this context, both the Catholic hierarchy and the governors sought each one for their own interests a national identity promoting the great popular devotion of the Guadalupanismo as a representative element of “the Mexican.”
A Study on New York Koreatown Festivals: Knowledge Maps and Tourism
As of 2015, there is an estimated 7.2 million Korean people living in the world in 170 countries outside of the Korean peninsula. More than 85% of Koreans overseas have established Koreatowns and have been residing in countries such as the United States, Japan, China, and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Koreatowns are ethnic Korean enclaves that transmit Korean culture, and Korean festivals are events providing Korean culture resources for the community. In order to introduce Korean culture to mainstream society, Koreatowns play an important role. In articular, Korean festivals held in Koreatowns are important cultural resources for overseas Koreans. The main research subjects in this paper are the festivals of overseas Koreatowns, particularly the ‘New York Korean Harvest and Folklore Festival,’ which has been held annually for 35 years by the Korean American Produce Association of New York. This paper focuses on using overseas Korean festivals as tourist resources by using digital technology to organize humanity knowledge and constructing knowledge content. Knowledge content is a specialized area of cultural contents. Wikipedia is an effective platform to display knowledge contents and Wikipedia will be tourist resources on overseas Korean festivals.
Family Business Networks in Hong Kong, South China, and North America in the Late 19th and the Early of 20th Centuries: A Research Note
The primary concern of this paper is to examine the business networks of Cantonese
merchants in the period of 1850s-1910s, based on what the merchants recorded by
themselves in the family correspondences and the wills (the probate jurisdiction, the
Supreme Court of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Record Series 144). These materials are
informative of the testators’ life stories such as origins of emigration, family details,
occupation, involvement of businesses, and location of residence. From these materials emerges the networking pattern that made the Cantonese merchants successful at home and overseas. To examine the hidden aspect of cross border networks of Cantonese, this paper will focus on the following issues: How did the Cantonese successfully extend and maintain their networks of business from Guangdong to Hong Kong, South China, Southeast Asia, Australia and North America? To what extent were the family networks interwoven with the business networks and were they effective in helping production, circulation, and consumption? Above all, did the Cantonese overseas network tell us something unique about Chinese practice of capitalism?
The European Union’s Common Fisheries Policy and the Implications of BREXIT
The seas and oceans have been, and remain, the most important resource for trade, communication and survival. The maritime trading routes have connected European states for thousands of years, as well as provided coastal settlements with supplies of food and resources, sustaining local industries and aiding economic growth. However, in Europe the state-centric past has been replaced with a functional, regionalist approach to managing, maintaining and ensuring sustainable future use of the seas and its stocks. This paper looks at the development of the EU’s maritime policy, the challenges it has faced, and the challenges it still faces, in particular the impact that Great Britain’s exit from the Union will have on the integrated maritime policy, and more importantly the role that the CFP could have in the BREXIT negotiations.
Maria Islands: The Mexican Penal Colony of the Pacific Ocean
An island is, by definition, a piece of land completely surrounded by water; small and confined spaces that, by order of authorities, have been home to jails and asylums for years. One of these is the archipelago called Maria Islands, located off the Mexican coast of the north-western state of Nayarit on the Pacific Ocean. Out of these, the largest is Mother Maria, which has been operating as a penitentiary from 1905 until now, and which is run by the Federal Government. This essay aims to learn more about the location of the Island of Mother Maria, its historical background, and its role as a prison. At the same time, the life of the inmates and the riot organized by them on the 2nd of February 2013 in protest against the awful conditions to which they were subjected will be discussed. This research is based on bibliographical information belonging to historians and jurists, the testimonies of workers and prison inmates, surveys, and information from several news outlets.
A Corpus-based Linguistic Profiling of Marine Humanities Discourse
“Marine humanities” is a very recent term to characterize an interdisciplinary field that examines the continuing narrative and construal of underwater and ocean environments, with the ultimate goal of understanding and preserving these environments. As “narrative” centrally makes use of language, this paper proposes a corpus linguistic-critical discourse analytic methodology that can be of assistance in the characterization and further understanding of marine humanities discourse. In order to demonstrate this methodology, the identification of ecological terms for study is first done by examining the 23-million word EcoLexicon corpus which is a multimodal terminological database reified by ‘word sketches’ using the Sketch Engine corpus tool. In order to corroborate the richness of the EcoLexicon corpus and to show the latest linguistic trends in the use of the term, the News of the World (NOW) Corpus of (currently) 5 billion words provides an overall indication of the frequency of distribution of each term across 20 countries in the trans-pacific region: the U.S., Australia, Kenya, Singapore, New Zealand, and other leading countries for which English is a native or near-native language. While varying in their views, these analytic tools and attendant corpora should provide a more inclusive perspective of marine humanities discourse and demonstrate the ability of corpus linguistics and ‘big data’ analysis to contribute to the wider inter-disciplinary conversation of marine humanities that relates human beings to their oceanic and wider ecological environments.
Family Remittances and the “De-risking” The Case of Mexico
Mexican migrants in the USA are first class Mexicans. It is in general the risk-taker population, hardworking, who has a different work ethics, compare to the average American worker. They give a different value to their labor and the remuneration that they perceive for that effort. Some are prosperous entrepreneurs. Success stories abound throughout America. They are far away from the political campaigns in Mexico, in which to their regret, they are incorporated in political speeches with highly demagogic content. They are generally skeptical of the political agendas of migrant associations in the USA. For this reason, among others, are the most likely to repudiate acts of corruption; and are, in a word, highly rational users (consumers) for the electronic remittances market. They migrate by looking for an initial point of contact, usually a close relative, who gives them first aid and probably a first job that serves as an “induction course” to the American work culture. From there, they move to any part of the Union in constant search for a better job; that is why one will always find Mexican labor in virtually all the 50 US’ states. It is at that moment that migrants experience the first need to send money to their homeland abroad. It is likely that the first money remittance will be partly used to pay for their travel expenses (expenses of the “pollero”) and partly to give initial support to their families. They are also absolutely wise in their spending decisions, savings and consumption of services. As a result of the threats that the new US government is launching, now under the umbrella of power －with a surrealist seriousness －in Mexico, expressions that call for “unity”, have emerged. As it is already in the public domain, one of these “initiatives” of the Trump Administration is to tax remittances particularly to Mexico and other Latin-American and Caribbean countries, to prevent undocumented migrants from having access to the service or both associated measures. The viability of these initiatives remains to be seen. However, in the search for spaces that require us to converge on unity, it is necessary to address the danger that has already existed for some years over the environment in Mexico of remittances payment.